Amy Khor should talk about sex

Minister of State for Health Amy Khor took over as head of the national policy committee for HIV and Aids at the beginning of this month, reported the Straits Times, 25 October 2011. She “succeeds” the late Balaji Sadasivan who died September 2010. That the position remained vacant for over 12 months tells you how much importance the government attaches to HIV and Aids.

The committee helps the Ministry of Health formulate policies and strategies for the prevention and treatment of the disease, said the newspaper. On it are 15 other members representing voluntary welfare organisations such as Action for Aids, health agencies like the Health Promotion Board, and other ministries.

Dr Khor said the challenge in Singapore’s fight against HIV and AIDS involves the early identification of those infected.

She also hoped to reduce the ignorance, fear and stigma that work against the early detection and treatment of HIV.

– Channel NewsAsia, 24 Oct 2011, Amy Khor appointed chair of national HIV committee. Link.

Indeed, early testing and treatment is a key issue in Singapore. Most cases surface only when the patient is already at a late stage. However, our policy-makers are only paying lip-service to this mission; there is no sign that they are prepared to do what is necessary to effect real change on the ground. They may think the problem is located in social attitudes and are fiendishly complex, but this is only true to a degree. In several ways, the government is the problem.

At the social level, the obstruction to early testing is simple, something I described in the earlier article Seeing a tiger when it’s just a cat. To begin with, the government refuses to subsidise treatment.

See it from the person’s perspective: Getting tested and finding out that one is HIV-positive is thus the gateway to financial ruin. On top of that, there is social stigma. Here again, the government has done nothing to educate the population that there should be no discrimination against HIV-positive persons; that they are not a threat to the community.

So, is it any wonder, if testing is the shortcut to financial and social death, people would not want to test? Won’t the average person try to put off facing that Hobson’s Choice as long as possible? Exhorting people to get tested is meaningless without addressing questions of cost and discrimination.

Yet exhorting is the route the government prefers because it is cheap. There is a debilitating paranoia about becoming a “welfare state”. Related to it is a tendency to see process as a good enough substitute for results; thus an unwillingness to recognise when exhortation does not work, doing it year after year – witness examples in Courtesy campaigns and Speak Good English campaigns. Recognition of ineffectiveness is too painful to bear for two reasons: officials who dreamt up exhortation cannot bring themselves to admit failure (and these officials, including politicians, stay in positions of power so long, there is little chance of fresh minds being brought to bear on the issue); and if cheap exhortation is conceded not to be working, the stark reality of more costly solutions loom, something they don’t want to think about.

Even more ridiculous is the fact exhortation itself has to bow to political sensitivity. The message being proclaimed is not the needed message but the one that moralists can stomach. Is it any wonder that results are elusive? The ministry avoids talking about condoms – the single most effective way to prevent spread of HIV. Instead it focuses on abstinence. In this is a fallacious belief that no one seems ever to have questioned: that sexually active persons can or will become abstinent. Ha!  That is as likely as curry-lovers eschewing spices. Do our officials all live in cloud-cuckoo land?

If not abstinence, the government talks about being faithful. Once again, nobody seems to apply his mind. Not everybody has someone to be faithful to. Many people just aren’t in a relationship, especially those in at-risk groups. How do people become monogamous without being a relationship?

Watch this Mediacorp Channel 5 advertisement and see if you can catch any mention of **gasp** condoms:

Did you notice another thing about the message in the ad above? The first part of it goes all out to paint a scary picture of an advancing invasion. “Asia has the second-highest number of people living with HIV. . . . In Singapore nearly one person is newly diagnosed with HIV every day.” After creating such a scenario of threat, you still expect people tobe  nice and friendly to the infected? Such mixed messages are all too common in our local efforts, an issue I will return to further down.

But first, compare the local ad with the much more informative, more targetted campaign for gay men in Vancouver. It gives people a clearer assessment of risk, it explains how exactly early testing benefits you, and most important of all, it uses sex-positive language. And it uses, as you will no doubt notice, sex-positive images.

* * * * *

Now come to the question of stigma. Social stigma discourages testing. Someone with a known HIV-positive status will likely find himself without a job, without which, he cannot pay for medication. Moreover, without an income, what quality of life is he going to have? The rational thing to do is to avoid testing.

And what tool is the government disposed to use to combat stigma? Exhortation again. Let us preach to employers not to discriminate. Great use that is. You might as well sing to mud.

Why isn’t anti-discrimination legislation considered? My guess is that such would run up against an ideological wall. If there is one “civil right” the Singapore government is earnest about defending, it is the “right” of Singaporeans to inflict their prejudice on others.

There isn’t even any understanding of where stigma comes from, such is the intellectual obtuseness that prevails. Consider this: Not all infectious diseases lead to stigma. Friends will happily tell each other about their experience of dengue fever or hepatitis. The front page of the Straits Times on 25 October 2011 carried a photo of a schoolgirl with tuberculosis.

The infections that carry stigma tend to be ones that are associated with sex – syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea and HIV. And this points to the negative associations people make with sex as the root source of stigma. Stigma is moral condemnation made sticky on the persons. Therefore it will be ultimately futile to exhort people not to stigmatise HIV-positive persons while all our other messages and actions scream sexual moralism – the cowardly response to the Abercorombie and Fitch advertisement painted on its temporary hoarding on Orchard Road comes to mind.

Let me use dengue fever as an analogy for a moment: It’s no use treating patients for dengue fever if we make no effort to eradicate mosquito breeding. By the same token, all the exhortation to not discriminate against HIV-positive persons will lead nowhere if we do not stop indulging in our sex-negativity and pandering to self-righteous moralisers.

If Amy Khor hopes for a more enlightened policy and a social environment that is less prohibitive of progress on the HIV-front, there is no better place to start than to encourage positive views of  the sexual. If she wants to battle HIV, she must first defeat the homophobes and the prudes.

12 Responses to “Amy Khor should talk about sex”


  1. 1 Kampong Boy 27 October 2011 at 19:33

    We need to start educating people about practicing safe sex. That should reduce the number of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and STD infection, especially HIV infection.

    But how to overcome the opposition from conservatives, who think that advocating safe sex is the same as advocating sex. There must be some research available on this.

  2. 2 insearchof 27 October 2011 at 20:19

    I don’t understand what the MediaCorp ad is trying to get across with having these voiceovers and “celebrities” looking pensively at the camera. A bunch of “pretty” faces looking all grave and acting sympathetic just makes for a few cringe-worthy moments more than anything else. Actually, like a lot of things in Singapore, it takes itself too seriously, which probably means the group it’s trying to appeal to will just tune out altogether.

  3. 3 Pareto Principle 27 October 2011 at 20:26

    “That the position remained vacant for over 12 months tells you how much importance the government attaches to HIV and Aids.”
    YB

    Alex, have you heard of the Pareto Principle in problem solving?

    Put simply, it says “80% of problems are attributed to 20% of the causes”.
    Or conversely, “20% of problems are attributed to 80% of the causes”.

    So if HIV and Aids are just one of the (many) 80% of causes that gives only 20% of problems, you should understand why “…the position remained vacant for over 12 months…”.

  4. 4 yuen 27 October 2011 at 21:22

    >Amy Khor should talk about sex
    >she must first defeat the homophobes and the prudes.

    this is not serious; a minister talking about sex would have such a drastic effect on the population? in fact, do most people pay attention to ministers’ speeches? the reporters do and write about them in ST, but that does not necessarily translate into popular interest

    as I see it, the main effective change would be to provide some form of subsidized treatment and more confidential testing procedures; in other words, the health and finance ministries are more in the position to do something about it

  5. 5 Leuk75 27 October 2011 at 23:16

    It is also highly interesting how something like the hepatitis B virus which is also largely sexually transmitted gets 1/100th of the flak from the sex phobic folks. It is in fact much easier to catch HBV than HIV and the consequences are just as bad – liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.

    Yet we do have drugs which are being subsidised for chronic hep B. Like HIV, the drugs can only suppress the virus but never cure the infection. Why the double standard? A case of there being less media stigma and slipping under the HIV radar?

    Interestingly, HPV vaccination that helps protect women from getting cervical cancer AND men from anal cancer is quietly being hushed and not being subsidised. You guessed right – HPV related cervical cancer is associated with precocious sex and multiple sex partners. Tsk tsk.

  6. 6 Chow 28 October 2011 at 11:06

    I was reading through the MOE statement on sexuality education. It was pretty much boiler plate stuff until this:
    “Our young have many sources of information online, from popular culture and friends. They are exposed to social norms of other societies and interest groups, including those with liberal values. Hence, it is important that parents play an active role in guiding their own children and for them to be able to receive objective and reliable information in schools.”
    Did they confuse liberal with wanton? It seems that by the way singled out ‘liberal’ that the word has a rather negative connotation both in the political and sexuality spheres. Mark also the words ‘objective’ and ‘reliable’. The ‘right’ is, without a doubt, the conservative stance.

    • 7 Chow 28 October 2011 at 11:10

      And, that last line in the quoted passage seems to invite lobby groups to lobby the education system to teach what they think fit. Think Abstinence Only, Creationists, and Supply-side Economics.

  7. 8 wikigam 28 October 2011 at 14:06

    Oct. 28 to 30 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Perth, Australia.

    1) Commonwealth countries will be urged to repeal homophobic laws at a leaders’ summit this week in a bid to stamp out the deadly spread of HIV, the virus which causes AIDS.

    2) Of the 53 Commonwealth countries, 41 still have laws against homosexuality , including Singapore.

    3) Commonwealth countries are disproportionately burdened with the disease, accounting for some 30 percent of the global population but 60 percent of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases.

    4) Commonwealth countries will be asked to explain how they’re dealing with HIV/AIDS Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011 in Perth

    http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/connectasia/stories/201110/s3342650.htm

    Dr. Amy Khor, have you prepared the script on “ How penal code 377A in prevention HIV infection in Singapore “

  8. 9 George 28 October 2011 at 18:28

    The reason is as clear to me as day: the govt looks at how cost effective (read, costly) it is for IT to implement. It is acutely aware that HIV cases are self-limiting and as someone here observed is not about to become an epidemic.

    Govt is willing to subsidise hep B because it is cheap.

    If you recall the ministerial statement: cheaper, faster and betterer?

    • 10 Gazebo 29 October 2011 at 00:50

      well said. i think in essence the govt wants HIV patients to die, so it can avoid paying to keep them alive. as such the govt wants to keep the spectre of death as loud and obvious as possible, such that society will never accept it as a manageable condition.

      i am not saying that HIV/AIDS isn’t serious. of course it is. nevertheless, i still do not think that means we should not try to cope with it as part of society’s problems and find solutions to handle it.

  9. 11 wikigam 29 October 2011 at 00:18

    Hi, All

    COSTLY isn’t a good reason why Singapore Goverment refuses to subsidise treatment for HIV medication but stigma .

    How will you feel if a HIV positive person can be lives as long as HIV negative person or longer ?

    Are you still remember who is Greg Louganis , he is an Olympic diver who won multiple gold medals in the ’80s. He tested positive in 1988 ,Having now lived with HIV for more than 20 years, he has been a champion for numerous HIV causes

    http://www.thebody.com/content/64374/fame-and-hiv-10-of-historys-biggest-hiv-positive.html?ic=7001

  10. 12 wikigam 29 October 2011 at 21:43

    To : Pareto Principle

    1)Too sad to tell you that “Theory” from book not neccessary can be “Pratise”.

    2) It isn’t a Major or Minor problem. but political benefit that will be received by rulling Party.

    3) May be they are too confident everything are under their observation and control.


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