As space tightens, Singaporeans suffocate

It’s taken me a while to think of a theme for this end-of-year post. Just in time, I have it: Space. Or rather, the ever-tightening amount of space in Singapore. The space I speak of is not just physical space, but also expressive space. 

The year 2013’s first big surprise was the groundswell of support for Transitioning’s protest against the White Paper that envisaged a 6.9 million population. Whilst throughout it was tinged with unapologetic xenophobia, which made many, including myself, keep an arm’s length away from it, it unarguably tapped into widespread dismay among Singaporeans (including Permanent Residents) that we are being crowded out. Waiting lists for public housing flats had been lengthening and their prices rising. Public transport has become a squeeze. But most of all, people felt being crowded out of jobs as our open-door policy brought in virtually unlimited numbers of S-Pass and Employment Pass holders.


The latter groups competed directly against Singaporeans for jobs, and had a wage-depressing effect. (Singaporeans, by my observation, tend to be a lot more understanding about the need for Work Permit holders, since they largely do essential jobs that Singaporeans don’t want to do.)

In response, the government began to tighten up on S-Passes and Employment Passes and introduced the Fair Consideration Framework, which required employers to give locals a bit of a headstart when jobs are advertised. It’ll take time to see whether the measure sufficiently addresses public concern.

But this response is entirely typical of so many other government responses through 2013: A refusal to think deeply about structural issues, reaching instead for quick fixes. In some areas, e.g. regulation of online media and taxi fares, there are multiple quick fixes that only lead to total confusion and deep distrust; in other areas, there are (or will be) unanticipated side effects, which then call for more patching.


Christmas souffle cheesecake. Pic from Kki's Facebook fan page

Christmas souffle cheesecake. Pic from Kki’s Facebook fan page

A higher population (it was touching 5.4 million in June 2013) meant pressure on rental rates. Last Sunday’s newspaper told the tale of woe of cake shop Kki and its co-tenant in a ground-floor shop space, indie retail shop The Little Drom Store. They had opened only four years ago in Ann Siang Hill, but the landlord is demanding a whopping rent increase of 140 percent. Worked backwards, it is equivalent to an annual escalation of 24 percent, compounded.

So, why move out when business is good? Rental there is set to increase by about 140 per cent.

Kki’s co-owner Delphine Liau, 36, says the landlord wants to up the rent on the 990 sq ft shop space from $6,300 a month to $15,000 a month. The owners have decided not to renew the lease, which ends on Tuesday. Ms Liau’s husband and Kki’s co-owner Kenneth Seah, 41, adds: “It is becoming harder and harder to run a business when rentals increase by such sharp amounts.”

— Sunday Times, 29 Dec 2013, Rentals up, business out

Plenty of businesses are struggling with the same problem. Eventually, Singapore will sink because of it.

We want to develop a creative, entrepreneurial economy, but this cannot be done in an environment where it is too costly to fail. High fixed costs like rent make it impossible for start-ups to have enough time on the learning curve to eventually succeed. High costs demand instant success, which is incompatible with experimental approaches. There will be huge pressure to stay risk-averse, and stick with copy-cat, proven business models — imported labels, please — rather than try anything new.

There are many structural reasons for the steady increases in rent. Chief among them is the reserve price that the government sets before it sells land, and the Development Charge it levies on land owners when they want to redevelop a plot.  The government speaks of “free market”, but it is nothing of the sort when it is itself such a major landowner that withdraws land parcels from the market unless the price is above a base price, or as a regulator disallows redevelopment unless a ransom is paid.

Moreover, as I have pointed out before, there is a concentration of commercial developments among a small number of players. These property companies have disproportionate market power over renters. This too has a tendency to drive up rents.

There is no sign that the disease has been diagnosed; certainly no sign of any better prognosis.

Tiny apartments

The same Sunday, I happened to chance on a property website, advertising a new condominium called Hills TwoOne. I landed on this page and saw floor plans of various apartments. Here is that of a two-bedroom unit that’s only about 52 square metres:


You can barely walk around the beds, and I can’t imagine where I might put a comfortable-sized desk. The washing machine has to be in the front balcony and you can forget about inviting any friends over for a sit-down dinner. I’m not even sure where travelling luggage can be stowed.

We all know the reason why apartments are getting tinier. Developers’ costs are rising, and to keep the price of an apartment affordable, they just have to shrink them. But what about the emotional toll this is going to take on people who live in these shoeboxes?

$2.50 nasi padang

You have to wonder if policy makers are even aware of such space and cost pressures. After member of parliament Baey Yam Keng Facebooked a $2.50 meal, consisting of an Indonesian rice dish (nasi padang) with a good-sized piece of chicken, he was met with disbelief. The ordinary bloke would be asked to pay twice as much, said many in unison. When Baey tried to explain further that $3.00 was what he was charged (for the rice dish and the bandung drink, for which he thought the standard price in Singapore was only 50 cents) — disbelief turned into derision. Where in Singapore does one find a bandung for 50 cents?  What kind of cloud-cuckoo land does he inhabit?

It’s a small incident, but it feeds into a widely-held view that policy makers are out of touch. To the average guy all sorts of pressures are building up — of which crowding and rising costs are high up on the list — but ivory-towered officials seem to think that Singapore is doing fine. This in turn generates an attitude in the halls of power that anyone who complains is not representative of the people but one who is out to make trouble: a dissenter, a political opponent, a trouble-maker. With that deafness, they accuse internet sites that carry the public’s views of engaging in “distortions” of the truth — not the “right things” that people ought to be reading.

Little India riot

The government’s response to the small riot that took place on 8 December 2013 can also be characterised as a contestation over space too. Although the state only lost control of the situation for a mere one hour, its heavy-handed reaction suggests that its was far more traumatic for the government than for Singaporeans. It banned all alcohol sales for a weekend and continues to restrict it on subsequent weekends. It shut down about half the private bus services that bring workers from dormitories to the area. On a typical weekend, about 250 – 280 buses would ferry about 23,000 workers into Little India. But this has been halved. Moreover, where they used to run all the way to midnight, buses must now stop by 9 pm. The bottom line is a frenzied rush to stamp the government’s authority on the district’s space.


It’s completely unnecessary, punishing the vast majority of workers who had no part in the riot. It gives the strong impression of a government feeling its pride wounded and taking it out on any and every outsider.

It also reveals a complete lack of understanding about social and cultural behaviour, including people’s social and cultural response to the government’s own behaviour. It failed for example to anticipate that fair-minded Singaporeans would speak up against deportation of those whom the government itself said was not guilty of participation in the riot. This ignorance of how the public feels echoes the lack of understanding it has about the social and cultural impact of immigration and rising costs.

Workers from India and Bangladesh like Little India. The precinct provides a variety of amenities that they need and which they can’t get anywhere else. There are shops that sell food and groceries that suit their tastes, cheap phones and phone cards for calling home, and gifts that are suitable for sending to their families. Best of all, it is an environment where retailers speak their language and is a central spot where friends and relatives from other parts of Singapore can come to to meet on a day off.

You can’t just tell dorm operators to keep the men confined within dorms and screen a couple of films. People do what they want or need to do, not what the state tells them to do. If any dorm operator tries to confine the men by force, another riot will occur.

Even with these measures, within weeks there will be side effects. If workers insist on gathering in Little India, yet ferry bus services remain restricted, they will just crowd into public buses and trains. Singaporeans will howl louder. On the other hand, if retailers decide to spread out to the suburban neighbourhoods to serve workers in far-flung parts of Singapore, and they succeed in attracting workers to new foci, then Singaporean residents in those neighbourhoods will soon feel the spillover impact of shutting down Little India.

This kind of knee-jerk response by a government that acts more and more from its own sense of insecurity, unable and unwilling to re-examine its biases, is beginning to typify Singapore. Cascade after cascade of quick-fixes with unintended side effects will be the norm.

Forum on migrant workers organised by Maruah, 23 Dec 2013

Forum on migrant workers organised by Maruah, 23 Dec 2013

Maruah’s forum

Human rights group Maruah organised a forum to discuss the situation in the wake of the riot. It booked a function room in Syed Alwi Road but the government intervened and arm-twisted the venue owner to boot Maruah out. In a last-minute change, Maruah found a room in the North Bridge Road premises of the Marketing Institute of Singapore. However, in the days following, the government made angry noises at the Institute, saying they should not have allowed “political” activity within their premises.

Intimidation, to deny others space for discussion and organising, is a old strategy of the ruling People’s Action Party. Casting the label “political” broadly to silence anyone with an interest in civic issues is an old tactic. In the last ten years there was a little softening, but this episode suggests a desire to turn back the clock.

News websites

Intimidation of those wanting to use online space is also in evidence. More interestingly, the methods all look totally ad hoc, quick fixes depending on the day of the week. In 2011, the government put the screws on The Online Citizen by declaring it a political association. Then in May and June this year, it created with little warning the “Individual Licence” framework requiring Yahoo! to put up a $50,000 good-behaviour bond. But when The Independent news site came onstream, an older rule was resurrected — the “Class Licence”, which people thought had fallen into disuse after the epochal pie-in-the-face case of Sintercom. In 2001, the government asked Sintercom to register under the Class Licence, but the fledging site chose to shut down rather than submit.

The Independent was accused of seeking foreign funding. Fierce denials by the backers of The Independent appears to suggest that the government’s claim was just a red herring to justify asking them to register. Even so, the Independent said it would register though it appears that due to bureaucratic chopping and changing of forms, the process has not yet been completed.

However, when the government tried the same with Breakfast Network, it chose to shut down instead, like Sintercom did. Then like a spurned lover insisting on killing the pet dog and pet cat, the government went after Breakfast Network’s Facebook and Twitter accounts.

* * * * *

All these different events lead to the same sense of crowdedness. People feel there is less and less room for manoeuvre — in business, creativity, careers, housing, socialising and expression. Partly it is the result of the government’s economic growth-at-all cost dogma, partly it is the whiplash from this government’s deep fear of the future and its desperate attempts to turn back the clock.

(I think: If the government is afraid of the future, does it mean it knows it has no future itself?)

Increasingly this city feels like a concentration camp. The “social peace and order” that the government constantly extols is the shuffle of regimented feet and the deathly quiet from the abandonment of hope.

Power-hungry governments don’t always fail in keeping control and forcing a country down the political and developmental path it wants. Some succeed in doing so. But if there’s any lesson from history, it is the inverse relationship between their top-down success and the health of a society. The latter depends a whole lot more on spontaneous, organic flowering. A good dollop of perceptive leadership helps, yet little of that is now in evidence. I think Singapore is beginning to fail.

35 Responses to “As space tightens, Singaporeans suffocate”

  1. 1 georgia tong 31 December 2013 at 20:46

    thanks for your enlightening and honest analysis.

    • 2 Foh Tze Sin 3 January 2014 at 06:23

      Spot on, except for your comment on the issue on Maruah forum. The riot in Little India was in part caused by activists like those in Maruah. They have been working hard among the foreign workers, outwardly trying to organize the foreign workers into unions fighting for better wages and perks for them, but covertly they organize these Indian workers into a new political force, working against the interests of Singaporeans. As a Singaporean, I hate to see Singapore being turned into another Fiji. The foreign workers are welcome to earn wages many times more than they could earn at home. They have NO SAY in how we rule ourselves in Singapore.

  2. 6 linda 31 December 2013 at 21:39

    Under the leedership, everything will collapse. Downtown line down, MCE jam, spectacular. The end is near. Maybe next will be island wide blackout followed by TB outbreak. Hopefully all these failures will jot awake the stupid 60% voters.

  3. 7 JT 31 December 2013 at 22:25

    Something is seriously wrong if the rental that the landlord charges is double the amount of profit that the tenant who takes all the risk makes. Also a HDB flat can be rented out for $2,500 a month but a worker working 12 hours a day makes only half that amount. Make any sense?

    The Little India riot is just the tip of the iceberg.

  4. 8 Sgcynic 31 December 2013 at 22:59

    You left out the contestation of space by organised resistance (IB).

  5. 9 Harry 31 December 2013 at 23:25

    I agree with your assessment that the PAP government knows that it has no future. They have some kind of internal polling and from talking to PAP supporters, I sense that they are in panic. Nothing seems to work for them. So in desperation they fall back on their old ways.
    One supporter told me that he thinks the PAP is the best government in the world. He then added that there is not future in Singapore. Their support level must be really bad.

  6. 10 V 31 December 2013 at 23:56

    oh yes . Its the peace of prison. I really wish others a good year. But it does not look good at all. The economy is set to fall as US does. Unemployment will rise. the magic 8 million mark is looming. new erps, rising transport and medical costs, the con of the new compulsary medishield, none of it looks rosy. we are slowly moving towards a police state where the people are held in a iron grip. get out while you can

  7. 11 breath! 1 January 2014 at 02:24

    hmm… yes, singapore is suffocating.
    I came here 8 years ago and it was a very, very, different world. The world is changing and Singapore too. And it has very little to do with Singapore politics or whatever. You can keep om nag and complain as much as you want but it’s not about Singapore.
    The whole world is changing, overpopulation, hyper poputation, globalized competition for ressources. Good luck with that.
    Stop thinking 5, 10 years ahead.
    Start thinking 50 years ahead.
    What do you REALLY need for happy life for yourself an your family.
    Buy your one way ticket.
    Don t look back.
    And don’t even think “power to the people” or whatever shit is gonna make a change.It’s got nothing to do with Singapore. It’s a world issue.. The world IS flat.
    Food, shelter, ressources, where are you going to find this in 50 years?
    ask yourself before it’s too late.
    Hope this comment helps a handful of clever people.
    then you still need the courage to act according to your gut feelings.

    • 12 Foh Tze Sin 4 January 2014 at 15:21

      Well….We are living in a globalized village. It doesn’t matter whereever you go….the plot is the same only the players are different.

      It is better to stay put in Singapore and change your game plan. In the current scheme of things, you always win…. if you bet witht the winners.

      Only the brave and the stupid will try to change the world. Good luck to them. I cannot find among them, the brave and the stupid, among the happy people in this world.

  8. 13 yuen 1 January 2014 at 03:20

    may I add another example of tightening expressive space: you have not approved any comments for publication for more than 2 weeks

    • 14 yawningbread 3 January 2014 at 01:33

      Some apology is in order. I faced a mysterious and repeated technical glitch when I tried to get into the comments section over the Christmas holidays, then gave up until I tried again today.

  9. 15 Zsingaporean 1 January 2014 at 09:01

    All these can be traced to their failed policies over the past decade when they had unfettered ability to do as they wish and ride roughshod over citizens. The suffocation physically, as well as the attempts to muzzle us for daring to speak up and complain is the result of them letting in foreigners by the millions to take our jobs and in trying to silence us when we protest

  10. 16 Winston Loh 1 January 2014 at 09:56

    Singaporeans, by my observation, tend to be a lot more understanding about the need for Work Permit holders, since they largely do essential jobs that Singaporeans don’t want to do.

    Like most unthinking Singaporeans, you seem to have swallowed hook, line and sinker that blue collared jobs are not wanted by Singaporeans. Where else do you see these jobs being shun in Hong Kong, Japan, Australia, Britain and the United States. Why are we so special? If not for the extremely low pay, do you think Singaporeans will shun them?

    The constant refrain that these are jobs not wanted by us is actually an excuse by the government and business community to hire cheap labour to take over our jobs. Every job deserves its due respect. There is a Chinese saying, ” 三百六十行,行行出状元”. Did your father teach you this? Or do you look down on people doing dirty jobs for you?

    I have to be frank with you that not every Singaporean is suitable for a PME job. There are always people, not so smart, but are good at other skills. These people are the ones suffering right now, because they have to compete with the influx of cheap labour. My parents are not so educated unlike your father. Do they deserve to earn a pittance just because of that? Do you think they don’t work as hard as other people?

    Come on, spare a thought for your fellow Singaporeans and stop perpetuating a lie by the government. There are Singaporean cleaners, security guards, etc. Some are our parents who did not have proper education. Please don’t look down on them. They deserve fair wages too.

    • 17 Foh Tze Sin 4 January 2014 at 15:48

      I agree with your sentiment, Singaporeans should be given the first choice for jobs in Singapore. In real life, things can be a little more complex.

      Take the jobs of bus drivers as an example.. There aren’t enough class four dirvers who are willing to take on the jobs as bus drivers. Singaporeans with class four/five driving licence take on jobs like trailer or container truck drivers with much higher wages. How much more SBS/SMRT have to pay the bus drivers…in order to attract enough Singaporeans drivers ,.,3 times or 4 times what SBS/SMRT pay the Malaysian drivers or drivers from China ?
      Are Singaporean commuters willing to pay 3 times more for bus fare ?

      Take another example, HDB gabbage collector..and cleaners. .
      How many Singaporeans are willing to become gabbage collectors after 12 years of schooling ? Give the jobs to Singapore retirees ? Are they strong enough to do the heavy duty jobs ?
      I agree that if we pay $8,000 a month to garbage collectors, many Singaporean will be willing to do the jobs.
      But then are we, the HDB residents, willing to pay higher conservency fees …at least 5 times higher ?

      • 18 Xavier 4 January 2014 at 16:58

        I think you are exaggerating the problem and taking a rather simplistic view of the situation in the absolute sense. Cost is always relative to income and income is derived from distribution. Workers earning more can mean CEOs earning less without passing cost to the consumer. How else do you think other countries manage to control cost while still keeping jobs for their locals? They have unions with real bargaining powers and government that serves its people, unlike the fake tripartite here led by a pro-business minister who serve their own pocket.

        Think about it. What gives? Don’t be fooled by rhetorics.

  11. 19 Lye Khuen Way 1 January 2014 at 13:09

    Wonderful write up , Alex. This goverment of ours, is certainly scared of the future . As you wonder yourself, do they see a future for themselves ?
    A Happier New Year to Everyone . Yes, that include the Ruling Party !

  12. 20 The 1 January 2014 at 13:51

    1990 – 3 million people
    2000 – 4 million people
    2010 – 5 million people

    You could almost fit a straight line to it, plus or minus a little.

    And during all these times, hospital beds had not increased by a single bed (before Khoo Teck Puat Hospital was built).

  13. 21 Terence Yap 2 January 2014 at 03:26

    Landlords can increase rent cause they own the place, right? Private condos can be made bigger or smaller according to the private developers. Our minister thought the bundung was 50 cents, i don’t belive it. What if the riots were to be every week… clamp down is good, so that people will think twice before they riot. Well, do you have a solution or just another complainer? Cause if you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem.

  14. 23 SN 2 January 2014 at 08:55

    Thanks for a thought-provoking, albeit a sombre piece, to start the new year.

    With the last line in mind, is it Singapore or the government (or the PAP) which is beginning to fail?

    And what are the yardsticks of success where Singapore is concerned, beyond space in the literal and the metaphorical sense, or is that all? (I take it that whatever these may be, you hold the position that the government or the PAP is incapable of fulfilling).

  15. 24 harriet 2 January 2014 at 14:12

    Singapore is BEGINNING to fail?!?
    That an apology for mistakes was made during the 2011GE indicates failure began Long before then, and the impact of wrong decisions and directions had become pretty obvious and were keenly felt then – by citizens.

    I was going to say that things started going wrong in the 1990s, when the floods of foreigners began – without any preparation for accommodating them, without thought as to how adding so many strangers to the mix so fast can affect a society, but it may well have started in the 1980s, possibly the late 1970s. Beliefs like only academic results matter were planted then.

    These days, the effects of poor decisions taken waaay back no longer lurk or are suspected, but are in one’s face.

  16. 25 George 2 January 2014 at 15:57

    Certainly, governing Singapore is a huge challenge but I disagree that we can put it all down to lack of understanding or ignorance and being out of touch. These suggest some degree of innocence in the govt’s many ‘transgression’. IMO, the LHL’s govt has always got all the info and knowledge to roll things out in a completely different and much more considerate and caring manner than it actually has been doing to date. The PAP govt has never been a party that dives into into any activity or any venture without a prior and thorough study of the pros and cons. Nearer to the truth is its undisguised willful disregard for the consequences of what would befall Singapore and Singaporeans as a result of its actions. That’s the unadorned and distressing (for Singaporeans) fact about the LHL regime.

  17. 26 buddhistchong 2 January 2014 at 19:49

    Reblogged this on Best picks off the wordpress market! and commented:
    An well-written piece that is making me question if I really want to live in Singapore the rest of life.

  18. 27 George 2 January 2014 at 22:21

    There was a food court stall which sold ‘hum chin pang’ and ‘mare chee’ at the Thomson Plaza which paid a monthly rental of $10,000. After several months’ struggle the owner shifted to a much smaller space on the open floor just outside to the main food court’s entrance, obviously because of it was not making enough to survive. A few more months down the road, it ‘disappeared’ completely, though it was the only casualty.

    Likewise, there has been several changes of shopping units ownership, including restaurants, at the very popular nex shopping mall (Serangoon MRT Station).

    This seems to be a regular features of shopping malls in many parts of Singapore. I seriously question the business acumen of many owners/proprietors of local retailers and outlets. It is a damn tough line to in IMO. The only winners as far as I can see are the landlords/property owners and the renovation contractors.

    It pains me everytime I see a shop closes. I can imagine the hundred of thousands of dollars that would have gone up in smoke for the ‘victims’. Yet, there don’t seem to be a lack of sacrificial lambs queuing up for slaughter. I have also seen whole row of shops at HDB estates, abandoned by overnight, no doubt because the retailers were unable to afford the rental anymore. But within weeks, they have been replaced by a whole new set of outlets!

  19. 28 Roo 2 January 2014 at 23:10

    Kki is one of my favorite places in Singapore, and it’s sad to see it pull its shutters, at least for now. It’s such a negative outlook we have here, but it’s so difficult to paint a brighter picture. Lessons need to be learnt ya?

  20. 29 Unbelievable 2 January 2014 at 23:21

    About the aftermath of the Little India riot. a colleague told me that he was at Punggol Park/Waterway over the weekend and it was packed with ….. Indian workers. LOL …..

    • 30 George 3 January 2014 at 14:58

      I have nothing against the foreign workers, but their sheer numbers in public places on weekends and holidays simply overwhelm. The foreign crowds simply degrade whatever facilities and space in question. I accept that they have every right to be there, but the overcrowding simply degrade one’s personal experiences at the venues. Imagine if a soccer stadium is filled to capacity and yet still more people are allowed in?

      Some scholar from the LKY school recently claimed that Singapore can accommodate 8 million. I am sure you can if you build enough 100-storey high HDB blocks. The same logic why there is hardly any road congestion on weekends and public holidays. Facilities and infra-structures become overcrowded because there are far too many people visiting or using them at the same time. This fact has been consistently ignored by such ‘scholars’. And it is not entirely true that the solution lies in building more infra-structures and facilities. For example, Indian foreign workers visit Little India for some very special and varied reasons and factors. It is academic, but even if land is available (and it is not) can you possibly duplicate the same ambience, facilities, conveniences and experiences that attract people to a certain location or place? Are the govt and its planners capable of understanding the crucial differences?

  21. 31 Neo Ren Jie 3 January 2014 at 10:32

    This government does not seem to reassure us that they know what they are doing. LKY says there is no A team that can challenge the PAP yet but I beg to differ. I am sure with the talent that we have at our exposal, we can come out with many A+ teams that are humble and more capable than the PAP.

  22. 32 Chanel 3 January 2014 at 10:59

    The government (and the ever obedient mainstream media) loves to throw in red herrings by claiming (wrongly so) that this and that business shuttered because of shortage of workers. The reality is many businesses closed because of rising rental costs.

    If this government keeps up with their style of rule, Singapore would soon overtake North Korea and make the latter look like Disneyland.

    • 33 bic cherry 4 January 2014 at 11:35

      Many PAP n cronies are property owners. Having grown Singapore in the LKY years, the PAP now wants to reap the returns of easy money by collecting rent from anyone who will come and pay… too bad, their greed has gotten the better of them and as said, N Korea is soon becoming Disneyland in comparison.
      Perhaps the only LEGITIMATE way of getting rid of the PAP and their modern day lies is to SCRAP THE GRC SYSTEM OF ELECTION and allow minority representation through a NCMP minority MP scheme just as the current NCMP scheme is currently reserved for apolitical ‘professionals’ planted in parliament to give a semblance of variety.
      More SMC seats will give people a bigger say and then questions about high property prices and rental costs, political salaries and the lack of a living wage and poverty line can be discussed.

      • 34 linda 5 January 2014 at 13:42

        Actually the GRC is just a mental block for the 60% voters. What’s there to fear. Just vote out a few incompetent ministers.

      • 35 The 6 January 2014 at 17:11

        Don’t forget they are raking in billions of dollars in foreign worker levies EACH year. For doing nothing, but shuffling papers………

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